Seven Cities of Cibola


Marcos de Niza was the first explorer to report the Seven Cities of Cibola, and his report launched the Coronado expedition.

Marcos de Niza was a priest who was sent north from Mexico City by Viceroy Mendoza in 1538-39 to search for wealthy cities that were rumored to be somewhere north of the frontier of New Spain. In early 1539 he left the frontier at Compostela and journeyed north into the unknown for several months. In the summer of 1539 he returned and wrote a report saying he had discovered the cities - in a province called Cibola (the present-day native American pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico). He said he reached the first city and saw it from a distance, but because his companion had been killed there, he returned without entering it.

Most popular writers claim Marcos reported gold in Cibola, but his original report says nothing about gold. Nonetheless, conquistadors in Mexico city were exited by his news and assumed Cibola would be as wealthy as the conquered Aztec empire. Marcos led Coronado's army back to Cibola the next year, in 1540, but he became the scapegoat when Cibola turned out to have no gold, and the soldiers said he was a liar.

The Controversy Rages On

Marco died in 1558 in disgrace, everyone having blamed him for leading Coronado's army on a fruitless quest under false pretenses. The actual personality of the man is very unclear, and it is exciting to go back through the documents and try to understand what really happened. The French scholar Bandelier (1886, 1890 -- see reference list) re-examined the case and concluded Marcos had told the truth. Carl Sauer (1932) published a thorough but hard-to-find analysis of Marcos and his route in "The Road to Cibola." Other crucial studies of Marcos and his journey were published in the New Mexico Historical Review by Henry Wagner (1934), Carl Sauer (1937, 1941), claiming that Marcos was a complete fraud, having turned back near the present-day border without reaching Cibola, and that he was part of a secret conspiracy with Viceroy Mendoza to promote exploration of the north. Lansing Bloom (1940, 1941) attacked the faulty claim by Wagner and Sauer that Marcos had inadequate time to reach Cibola. William Hartmann (1997) argued from more modern archaeological data that Marcos was on well-known trade routes and did complete his journey, essentially as he described it.

Purposes of Marcos' Journey

Viceroy Mendoza gave Marcos a specific list of instructions which we still have. The main goal was to find news of any wealthy northern cities, rumors of which had been reported 1536 by Cabeza de Vaca when he and his party, wandered near the present US-Mexico border.

Many scholars ignore that a second general goal of Mendoza was to get information about the coast, because he believed it might be possible to mount a conquest of that area by sea. In fact, Cortés, conqueror of the Aztecs, was already building ships in a race to reach the north before Mendoza! Cabeza de Vaca had speculated that the northern trading center might be near the coast. Remember that many Spaniards still thought Mexico was an island, and thus that, somewhere in the north, the western coastline would curve around to the east.

A third goal was to report on the land route, the people, minerals and products, etc.

Many scholars, especially Hallenbeck (1949), berate Marcos for not following these orders. Hallenbeck claims he ignored virtually all of them, which is overly pessimistic. It is true that Marcos did not report as much detail as modern scholars would like, but from the vantage point of modern archaeology and geology, we can see that his brief Relación , or report, was correct in describing the location of Cibola, the architecture and customs, the turn of the coastline (to the west, not east), and some habits of natives in Sonora. The Relación also notes that Marcos provided a list of names of islands and possibly other geographic information in a separate document, now lost. The existence of this second document, with its list of names, may explain why the main Relacion is sketchy about geography.


So enthused were the natives of this last valley, that they organized a second party of "chiefs" from various villages to accompany Marcos to Cibola. On May 9, they entered the final 15-day despoblado , expecting to be reunited with Estevan around May 24 in the wondrous city of Cibola.

In a dramatic turn of events, Marcos' party met a handful of bloodied refugees a few days south of Cibola. Impetuous Estevan, they reported, had ignored orders from the governor of Cibola not to approach or enter the city. Apparently the governor was apprehensive about Estevan, who appeared as a strange, dark-skinned shaman, traveling with two Castillian greyhounds. Estevan, full of confidence from his experiences five years earlier, had laughed off the governor's orders and approached anyway where he was held for at least one night in a building outside the city. A skirmish ensued. Some of the southern Arizona natives in the entourage were killed or injured, and Estevan, too, was reported killed. (The death of Estevan in this way was confirmed a year later by Coronado's army.)

Marcos' entourage from southern Arizona almost turned on him, but after prayer and a distribution of gifts, Marcos talked his way out of the situation.

  • I proceeded to distribute what I had left of the garments and trade articles, to calm them, and I urged them to realize that even if they killed me, they could really not harm me because I would die a Christian, and would go to heaven. But those who killed me would suffer for it, because more Christians would come in search for me and kill all of them, even thought that would be against my own wishes. These words and my other speeches appeased them, though they still were angry over the people who had been killed.

  • I proposed that some of them should go on with me to Cibola, to see if any others had escaped, and to learn what we could about Estevan. I could get nowhere with this idea. At last, two of the chiefs, seeing me determined to go on, said they would go with me.

  • With these and my own Indians and interpreters, I pursued my journey until within sight of Cíbola, which is situated on a plain at the skirt of a round hill. It has the appearance of a very beautiful town, the best I have seen in these parts. The houses are of the style that the Indians had described to me, all of stone, with stories and terraces, as well as I could see from a hill where I was able to view it. The city is bigger than Mexico City. At times, I was tempted to go on to the city itself, because I knew I risked only life, which I had offered to God on the day I started the journey. But, in the end, I was afraid to try it, realizing my danger and that if I died, I would not be able to make a report on this country, which to me appears the greatest and best of the discoveries I have made.

  • When I remarked to the chiefs about how beautiful this city was, they replied that this one was the least of the seven cities. Furthermore, Totonteac, the still more distant kingdom, is even better than these seven. They said it has so many houses and people that it has no end.

  • Viewing the geographic setting of the city, I thought it appropriate to name this country the new kingdom of Saint Francis. There, with the aid of the Indians, I made a great heap of stones, and on top of it I placed a cross, small and light because I lacked the equipment to make it larger. I announced that I was erecting this cross and monument in the name of Don Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, for our lord the Emperor, in token of possession and conforming to the instructions. I proclaimed that in this act of possession I was taking all of the seven cities... and that the reason I didn't proceed onward to them was to return and give an account of what I did and what I saw  

 Marcos gives few details of his return trip. Apparently he turned up in Mexico City in mid to late August. On August 23, Bishop Zumarraga, in Mexico City, wrote a letter with some details of Marcos' discoveries, possibly after chatting with him. On August 26, a copy of his Relación was certified and dated by the superiors of his Franciscan order. On September 2, it was delivered in person to the Viceroy at a court function where Marcos answered questions in front of various witnesses.


The return of Marcos initiated a period of intense rumor-mongering in Mexico City, as attested by various historians. Many writers say that Marcos claimed that Cibola had gold and fabulous wealth

Around 1650s the North American Continent suffered the same fate the rest of the world did. To reference what I'm talking about use these links:

Anyways, the North American Continent went through the following major stages. The below compilation is an approximate transformation progression. For more details please visit this link. There could have been an additional stage, but that one is much harder to work with.



Sometime around 1650s, an event of great magnitude took place. This event drastically changed the outline of the Pacific North West area of the North America. Whether the area was entirely, or partially flooded, but the outline of the Continent did change. Some of the known coastal areas vanished with no trace.


The Seven Cities of Cibola​The Seven Cities of Gold, also known as the Seven Cities of Cibola, is a myth that was popular in the 16th century. It is also featured in several works of popular culture. According to legend, the seven cities of gold could be found throughout the pueblos of the New Mexico Territory. The cities were Hawikuh, Halona, Matsaki, Quivira, Kiakima, Cibola, and Kwakina. While there have always been mentions of a seventh city, no evidence of a site has been found.

  • In the 16th century, the Spaniards in New Spain (now Mexico) began to hear rumors of "Seven Cities of Gold" called "Cíbola" located across the desert, hundreds of miles to the north. The stories may have their root in an earlier Portuguese legend about seven cities founded on the island of Antillia by a Catholic expedition in the 8th century, or one based on the capture of Mérida, Spain by the Moors in 1150.
  • The later Spanish tales were largely caused by reports given by the four shipwrecked survivors of the failed Narváez expedition, which included Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and a black moorish slave named Esteban Dorantes, or Estevanico. Eventually returning to New Spain, the adventurers said they had heard stories from natives about cities with great and limitless riches. However, when conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado finally arrived at Cíbola in 1540, he discovered that the stories were unfounded and that there were, in fact, no treasures as the friar had described - only adobe towns.
  • While among the towns, Coronado heard an additional rumor from a native he called "the Turk" that there was a city with plenty of gold called Quivira located on the other side of the great plains. However, when at last he reached this place (variously conjectured to be in modern Kansas, Nebraska or Missouri), he found little more than straw-thatched villages.
    n 1539, Friar Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan priest, reported to Spanish colonial officials in Mexico City that he’d seen the legendary city of Cibola in what is now New Mexico. It was an electrifying statement - Spanish explorers who were scouring the New World for Native American treasure had heard persistent tales of the fantastic wealth of the so-called Seven Cities of Cibola.
    • “It is situated on a level stretch on the brow of a roundish hill,” the friar said. “It appears to be a very beautiful city, the best that I have seen in these parts.” The priest acknowledged, however, that he had only seen the city from a distance and had not entered it because he thought the Zuni Indian inhabitants would kill him if he approached.
    • But when a large and expensive Spanish expedition returned to the area in 1541, they found only a modest adobe pueblo that wasn’t anything resembling what the priest described. The expedition turned out to be a ruinous misadventure for those involved - including famed conquistador Francisco Vazquez de Coronado, who led it.
    • “Virtually everyone, including the leader, returned to Mexico City heavily in debt,” says New Mexico author Richard Flint, who, with his wife, Shirley Cushing Flint, has written five books about Coronado. “A number of those people never recovered financially.”
    • For five centuries, scholars have debated what de Niza saw when he claimed he’d found Cibola - or whether he simply told Spanish officials what they wanted to hear.
    • The Seven Cities of Cibola
    Additional links:
    Area 51 a.k.a. Totonteac
    While there have always been mentions of a seventh city, no evidence of a site has been found.  

    Totonteac and Cibola
    I have seen four various English language spellings of this city: Tonteac, Tototeac, Totonteac and Tontonteac. The actual city appears to have been a part of the Totonteac Regnum. Well, let us see what the older books have to offer in reference to our Totonteac and the Seven Cities of Cibola.

    In 1714, approximately 75 years after the area cities got destroyed, the following was published. Interesting that a lake was mentioned. Could it be our Groom Lake?


    But it's texts like the 1628 one below, which have nothing to do with our Totonteac, but have the location mentioned due to the author's associations, that make me believe that Totonteac did exist.


    Or like this 1664 text written in the language I do not know, yet the mere inclusion of Totonteac in this list gives its existence a certain credibility.


    Or like these grid coordinates mentioned in 1677.


    It sounds like our Totonteac had better constructed buildings as compared to Cibola.



    And here is what the city of Cibola was described as.


      1652 Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula_1_1.jpg

 Could this be an innocent mistake? I don't know. That would be like some Mercedes misspelling its own name on their AMG class cars. It's not only Columbus's 1492 date which is wrong on there.

  • Vespucci died in 1512.
  • Columbus died in 1506.

Area 51
The United States Air Force facility commonly known as Area 51 is a highly classified remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base, within the Nevada Test and Training Range. According to the CIA, the correct names for the facility are Homey Airport and Groom Lake, though the name Area 51 was used in a CIA document from the Vietnam War. The facility has also been referred to as Dreamland and Paradise Ranch, among other nicknames. USAF public relations has referred to the facility as "an operating location near Groom Dry Lake".
  • General Info:
    • Coordinates - 37°14′06″N : 115°48′40″W
    • The base's current primary purpose is publicly unknown.
    • The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component to the UFO folklore.
    • Although the base has never been declared a secret base, all research and occurrences in Area 51 are Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information.
    • On 25 June 2013, following a Freedom of Information Act request filed in 2005, the CIA publicly acknowledged the existence of the base for the first time, declassifying documents detailing the history and purpose of Area 51.
       The Mercator changed the position to Equator to make Africa smaller in the conscience of people when they show the projection maps in the text books.Also North is South and South is North somehow.
      Mar del Sud Pacifico and Mar del Tartaria in a map of 1776
      Another map from 1781 with details about North American Continent the Arctic and Siberia.

 1785 Zatta Map of North America

 Tahugluak and Mozeemlek were two, apparently white, nations/tribes of Native American people.

Here is a couple of instances I found intriguing, "Tahuglauk wear their beards two fingers' breadth long; that their garments reach down to their knees; that they cover their heads with a sharp-pointed cap; that they always wear a long stick or cane in their hands, which is tipped, not unlike what we use in Europe; that they wear a sort of boot upon their legs which reach up to their knee; that their women never show themselves, which perhaps proceeds from the same principle that prevails in Italy and Spain;"

The other one was, "the lower part of that river is adorned with six noble cities, surrounded with stone cemented with fat earth; that the houses of these cities have no roofs, but are open above, like a platform, as you see them drawn in the map; that besides the above-mentioned cities, there are above an hundred towns".


I thought about sharing the info I came upon, but felt that a certain prerequisite was missing, so I put this little article together: Bizarre transformation of the North American Continent: 16th through 19th centuries. Please go over it first before continuing. I think it might contribute to those few possible reasons why the people of Tahugluak and Mozeemlek were never found.


1703 Tahuglauk Skeme a river in North America


 Map from 1570 - Tipus Orbis Terarum


Map from 1611 - Pieter van den Keeres


Map from 1630

Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica ac Hydrographica Tabula



Mercator Septentrionalium Terrarum

 1595 Mercator map.

Columbus set foot on Hispaniola in 1492. Cortez overthrew the entire Aztec Empire by 1521. Pizarro conquered Peru and defeated Incas by 1535. Yet the North American settlers barely made it to the Mississippi river by 1820. 300 year difference is bizarre. Did North American natives have better defensive equipment? 







A sistrum is an ancient Egyptian percussion instrument that was shaken during religious ceremonies and when coming into the presence of a deity.
Played by shaking the instrument like a rattle, moveable objects on the horizontal bars or the free movement of the bars themselves against the frame, produced sounds. Originally from Egypt and first seen in the Old Kingdom, the instrument was closely associated with ritual rites in honour of Isis
or sistra. -rə : an ancient Egyptian and Roman percussion instrument sacred to the goddesses Hathor and Isis consisting usually of a handle attached to a small metal strip bent into an oblong loop with holes for three or four loose metal rods that jingle when shaken.

The sistrum was one of the most sacred musical instruments in ancient Egypt and was believed to hold powerful magical properties. It was used in the worship of the goddess Hathor, mythological character of joy, festivity, fertility, eroticism and dance. It was also shaken to avert the flooding of the Nile and to frighten away Seth, the god of the desert, storms, disorder, and violence. Isis, in her role as mother and creator, was often depicted holding a pail symbolizing the inundation of the Nile in one hand, and the sistrum in the other hand. It was designed to produce the sound of the breeze hitting and blowing through papyrus reeds, but the symbolic value of the sistrum far exceeded its importance as a musical instrument.

Ancient Greek historian, Plutarch, speaks of the powerful role of the sistrum in his essay, “On Isis & Osiris”:

“The sistrum makes it clear that all things in existence need to be shaken, or rattled about, and never to cease from motion but, as it were, to be waked up and agitated when they grow drowsy and torpid. They say that they avert and repel Typhon by means of the sistrums, indicating thereby that when destruction constricts and checks Nature, generation releases and arouses it by means of motion.” (Plutarch, Moralia, Book 5, “On Isis & Osiris,” section 63)

The sistrum consists of a handle and frame made from brass, bronze, wood, or clay. When shaken the small rings or loops of thin metal on its movable crossbars produced a sound that ranged from a soft rattle to a loud jangling.  Its basic shape resembled the ankh, the Egyptian symbol of life, and carried that hieroglyph's meaning. Archaeological records have revealed two distinct types of sistrum.

A sistrum (plural: sistra or Latin sistra;[1] from the Greek σεῖστρον seistron of the same meaning; literally "that which is being shaken", from σείειν seiein, "to shake"[2][3][4]) is a musical instrument of the percussion family, chiefly associated with ancient Egypt. It consists of a handle and a U-shaped metal frame, made of brass or bronze and between 30 and 76 cm in width. When shaken, the small rings or loops of thin metal on its movable crossbars produce a sound that can be from a soft clank to a loud jangling. Its name in the ancient Egyptian language was sekhem (sḫm) and sesheshet (sššt).

Sekhem is the simpler, hoop-like sistrum, while sesheshet (an onomatopoeic word) is the naos-shaped one. The modern day West African disc rattle instrument is also called a sistrum


Egyptian sistrum

A sesheshet-type sistrum, shaped like a naos, Twenty-sixth Dynasty (ca. 580 - 525 BCE)

The sistrum was a sacred instrument in ancient Egypt. Perhaps originating in the worship of Bat, it was used in dances and religious ceremonies, particularly in the worship of the goddess Hathor, with the U-shape of the sistrum's handle and frame seen as resembling the face and horns of the cow goddess.It also was shaken to avert the flooding of the Nile and to frighten away Set.

Isis in her role as mother and creator was depicted holding a pail, symbolizing the flooding of the Nile, in one hand and a sistrum in the other.[8] The goddess Bast often is depicted holding a sistrum also, with it symbolizing her role as a goddess of dance, joy, and festivity.[

Sistra are still used in the Alexandrian Rite and Ethiopic Rite. Besides the depiction in Egyptian art with dancing and expressions of joy, the sistrum was also mentioned in Egyptian literature.The hieroglyph for the sistrum is shown.

The sistrum continued to be used in Egypt well after the rule of the pharaohs. Rome's conquest of Egypt in 30 BC, following the death of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, helped spread the cult of the goddess throughout the Mediterranean and the rest of the Roman world. The Hathor heads were interpreted as Isis and Nephthys, who represented life and death respectively.

Worship of the goddess Isis became extremely popular in the Greco-Roman period and during this time, the sistrum became inextricably tied to Isis. Temples to Isis were built in every major city, perhaps the largest and most richly decorated being in Rome, near the Pantheon. The temple and its surrounding porticoes were decorated with beautiful wall paintings, some of which show priests or attendants of Isis holding a sistrum.

In Greek culture, not all sistrums were intended to be played. Rather, they took on a purely symbolic function in which they were used in sacrifices, festivals, and funerary contexts.  Clay versions of sistrums may also have been used as children’s toys.


Minoan sistrum

Minoan clay sistrum found in Archanes, Crete

The ancient Minoans also usthe sistrum, and a number of examples made of local clay have been found on the island of Crete. Five of these are displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Agios Nikolaos. A sistrum is also depicted on the Harvester Vase, an artifact found at the site of Hagia Triada.

Researchers are not sure yet if the clay sistra were actual instruments that were used to provide music, or instead were models with only symbolic significance. But, experiments with a ceramic replica show that a satisfactory clacking sound is produced by such a design in clay, so a use in rituals is probably to be preferred.[12]

The sistrum today

The senasel (sistrum) remained a liturgical instrument in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church throughout the centuries and is played today during the dance performed by the debtera (cantors) on important church festivals. It is also occasionally found in Neopagan worship and ritual.

The sistrum was occasionally revived in 19th century Western orchestral music, appearing most prominently in Act 1 of the opera Les Troyens (1856–1858) by the French composer Hector Berlioz. Nowadays, however, it is replaced by its close modern equivalent, the tambourine. The effect produced by the sistrum in music – when shaken in short, sharp, rhythmic pulses – is to arouse movement and activity. The rhythmical shaking of the sistrum, like the tambourine, is associated with religious or ecstatic events, whether shaken as a sacred rattle in the worship of Hathor of ancient Egypt, or in the strident jangling of the tambourine in modern-day Evangelicalism, in Romani song and dance, on stage at a rock concert, or to heighten a large-scale orchestral tutti.

Classical composer Hans Werner Henze (1926–2012) calls for the flautist to play two sistra in his 1988 work Sonate für sechs Spieler (Sonata for six players).

West Africa

Various modern West African and Gabon rattle instruments are also called sistra (plural of sistrum): the calabash sistrum, the West Africa sistrum or disc rattle (n'goso m'bara) also called Wasamba or Wassahouba rattle. It typically consists of a V-shaped branch with some or many concave calabash discs attached, which can be decorated.

 Collection of sistrums at the LouvreWalters Art Museum, ca. 380–250 BCECollection of sistrums at the LouvreSeated woman with sistrum on a coin issued under HadrianRomanized Isis holding a sistrum, also from the time of Hadrian2300-2000 BC, Anatolia (Turkey), made in copper alloy.Egyptian SistrumNefertari, wife of Ramesses II, holding a sekhem-type sistrumBroken Egyptian Sistrum

Egyptian goddess holding a sistrum

 Another Source states:

 Here is another explanation that I found about Sistrum
The Sistrum is not a musical instrument. The Greek σεῖστρον seistron; literally means "that which is being shaken" - Not meaning that which you must shake, but that which is being shaken (obviously) by electric field conditions due to the metallic rods and high energy electric events that can happen on the Earth.
Plutarch said, "that the shaking of the four bars within the circular apsis indicated the agitation of the four elements (water/sea, air, ground, fire) within the magnetic field or compass of the world, by which all things are continually destroyed and reproduced."
The Sistrum is therefore a receiver or detector of the Electric Field conditions that drive climatic systems on the Earth, such as large storms, earthquakes and volcanoes.
Hathor as the 'Strong Electric Field Enclosure', is shown supporting the Sistrum and Nephthys was said to be the home of the Sistrum,
 Nephthys defining the capacitor action and the creation of an Electric Field that the Sistrum reacts to. The device was not shaken to scare off Set, but rather the 'agitation' of the metalic bars detected the presence of Set, as he influences electric field conditions.
 As the Snake ejects from Ra (e.g. Coronal Mass Ejection), the sun charges the plasmasphere, releasing charge from Set causing the Sistrum to rattle and shake as a precursor warning to a electrically induced natural disaster or large weather system.
The Greek documentation of the Sistrum is therefore evidence that the Sun Earth relationship has been known and crudely understood by civilizations thousands of years before our time.

Mast Hieroglyph(Left) Attracting Negative Charge to Anode Core via Resonance : (right) Tuning Forks

[Resonance / Attraction] Tuning Fork

Traditionally seen as the ships mast, explains how charge is transferred to stars. For further information see Anubis.


Gene Decode

British Moors on North American Continent and the Draco.

1721 a treaty between 2 fractions of Moors

Moors are descendants if Argus kings 
that were before Lemuria and before Atlantis and Yugar.
Yugar was on the Goby desert. 
Yugars were destroyed by an antimatter bomb that rain sands fir thousands of years

Prìr to Yugar Empire was Hyoerborea thatbwas in the arctic.
Prior to hyperbole was the Moors. They were descendants if the Polaria empire. Polaris Empire is beyond arctic is inside the earth now.

The war of Gilgamesh between Atlantis and Lemuria an opening of the Earth was created and Polaris is now inside the Earth.

Then Moors moved into Africa. Then they moved in Sicily and near Sicily in Italy. 

From there they moved to Germany and became the Tudor Nights.

Tudor Nights intermaried with house of Gotha. That is also Vlad the Impailer.
Then they got into Roman Empire.
In 1066 took over England and the House of Windsor was taken over by the House of Windslo.
They kept the original name of Windsor.

At that time Kazarian Mafia infiltrated the Moors.
The Name changer took over somebody's else name.

Charlotte was a Moorish black woman.
On the great lake they took over the mount builders.

Red hair giants working with them were Anunnaki. 

Austrian King in Mexico City 1864-1867


Chapultepec Castle is located on top of Chapultepec Hill in Mexico City's Chapultepec park. The name Chapultepec is the Nahuatl word chapoltepēc which means "on the hill of the grasshopper"

It was remodeled and added to and became the official residence of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Empress Carlota during the Second Mexican Empire (1864–67).

Maximilian I (German: Ferdinand Maximilian Josef Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was an Austrian archduke who reigned as the only Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire from 10 April 1864 until his execution on 19 June 1867. A member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, Maximilian was the younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. He had a distinguished career as the Austrian viceroy of Lombardy–Venetia and the commander-in-chief of the Imperial Austrian Navy.

His involvement in Mexico came about after France, together with Spain and the United Kingdom, had occupied the port of Veracruz in the winter of 1861 to pressure the Mexican government into settling its debts with the three powers after Mexico had announced a suspension on debt repayment earlier in the year; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with the Mexican government and realizing the true intention of the French, who were aiming at regime change. Seeking to legitimize French intervention, Emperor Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish what would come to be known as the Second Mexican Empire, which gained the collaboration of Mexican conservatives and certain moderate liberals. With a pledge of French military support and at the formal invitation of a Mexican delegation, Maximilian accepted the crown of Mexico on 10 April 1864.[2]

The Mexican Empire managed to gain the diplomatic recognition of several European powers, including Russia, Austria, and Prussia.[3] The United States, while it did not protest formally against the empire, [4] continued to recognize Juárez as the legal president of Mexico and saw the French presence as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. The U.S. was unable to intervene politically due to its ongoing civil war. Franco-Mexican forces never completely defeated the Mexican Republic, but pushed their troops to the border with the U.S.[5] Republican guerillas also continued to be active throughout the Empire. With the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the United States began providing more explicit aid to Juárez's forces. French armies began to withdraw from Mexico in 1866. The Mexican Empire began to falter and Maximilian was captured after a last stand at Queretaro. He would be tried and executed by the restored Republican government alongside his generals Miguel Miramon and Tomas Mejia on June, 1867